The Twentieth century has seen the largest number of art styles developed. Artists moved away from traditional painting and many new experimental movements were formed:
• abstract expressionism
• op art
• pop art
Fauvism is derived from the French, les fauves , the wild ones. Paintings were realistic and subjects were taken from everyday life. Their choice of colours is what earned them the name, fauve. They used brilliant and vibrant colours. Clashing colours were placed along side each other and many of the works were produced directly on the canvas without any preliminary sketches. Paintings were completed quickly and the artist did not bother to complete fine details.
Cubist painters believed that to give a true representation of an object it had to be painted from more than one angle.The artist would break-up the subject into a number of geometric planes. These planes were then rearanged to form a unified object in the painting. In traditional painting the artist painted what he saw. In cubist painting the artist painted what he conceived to be there.
Futurists were most concerned with capturing movement and energy. They chose subjects that were either in motion or as seen from a moving object. Futurists adopted principles linked to multiple exposure photography. They overlapped images of the same subject at different stages of movement to create an illusion of real movement.
Orphism was a simplified form of Cubism. Artists used very bright colours and they expressed movement through swirling concentric bands of colour.
Dadaist movement formed after World War 1. They rejected all traditional art and culture and replaced it with what they called "ready-mades" , discarded objects presented as a parody of high art.
Rayonnist painters tried to convey scientific theories in their paintings. They would try to depict light rays in movement. They were influenced by the Cubists in many ways.
Neo-Plasticist paintings consist of predominantly horizontal and vertical black lines that cross each other, with coloured squares in between. The paintings are two-dimensional and consist of only five colours; black, white, red, blue and yellow. The aim of the arstist was to produce a balanced harmonious painting.
Expressionism was the pursuit of capturing emotions and translating them into paintings.
Surrealist painters looked to their subconcious for inspiration to use in their paintings. There were two main styles of surrealist painting the natural and the abstract. In the natural style the picture would often convey the setting of a dream. In the abstract form, objects are less recognisable and the paintings are often suggestive of sex or death.
Abstract is the term given to paintings which have no recognisable subject matter. The Abstract artist believes that the colour, texture and shape of a painting can influence emotions rather than a recognisable object. Abstract art is left for the viewer to interpret in their own way.
Abstact Expressionism was a movement where the artists wished to convey their innermost feelings. Paintings of the movement are usually massive in scale and are very often executed in household paints.
Op Art paintings exploited optical illusion. Paintings were often abstract and geometrical and designed to give the feeling of movement.
Pop Art is associated with modern culture. Inspiration comes from advertisments, comic strips and everyday objects associated with mass consumption.
Cyber-Art is a name given to the growing use of computers and technology in creating art forms. Works may consist of computer generated images and could be controlled by the artist manipulating this new medium.